Is insulin-dependent or independent?
GLUT4 is insulin-dependent and is responsible for the majority of glucose transport into muscle and adipose cells in anabolic conditions.
Which GLUT transporters are insulin independent?
Abstract The glucose transport proteins (GLUT1 and GLUT4) facilitate glucose transport into insulin-sensitive cells. GLUT1 is insulin-independent and is widely distributed in different tissues.
What is insulin independent glucose uptake?
Thus, insulin-independent glucose transport through GLUT1 can meet the basal needs of the muscle cell. If glucose entrance through GLUT1 and the activation of the hexosamine pathway is abundant, it can decrease the insulin-mediated glucose transport through GLUT4 leading to insulin resistance.
What type of transport does insulin use?
Insulin increases glucose uptake into fat and muscle cells through the regulated trafficking of vesicles that contain glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4).
Which tissues are insulin independent?
It should be noted here that there are some tissues that do not require insulin for efficient uptake of glucose: important examples are brain and the liver. This is because these cells don’t use GLUT4 for importing glucose, but rather, another transporter that is not insulin-dependent.
Which diabetes is insulin independent?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since it can be treated with lifestyle changes and/or types of medication other than insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes.
Is GLUT3 insulin-dependent?
In other cells and tissues, glucose uptake is mainly provided by the transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 or by other special, not yet specified, transporters of the GLUT family. These transporters function independent of insulin.
Which tissues are insulin-independent?
Is GLUT4 insulin-dependent?
GLUT4 functions for the insulin-dependent translocation of glucose. Thus, insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose by GLUT4 in the muscle cell where hexokinase converts it to glucose-6-phosphate so that the cell may utilize it for either glycolysis for energy or for the formation of glycogen when glucose is abundant.
How is insulin transported?
Insulin is transported into the CNS by a saturable receptor-mediated process that is proposed to be dependent on the insulin receptor. Transport of insulin into the brain is dependent on numerous factors including diet, glycemia, a diabetic state and notably, obesity.
How is insulin transported into the cell?
Like a key fits into a lock, insulin binds to receptors on the cell’s surface, causing GLUT4 molecules to come to the cell’s surface. As their name implies, glucose transporter proteins act as vehicles to ferry glucose inside the cell.
What causes insulin independent diabetes?
Glucose intolerance in patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus can theoretically arise from a loss of normal tissue sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) and/or from a decrease in insulin secretory capacity.