Can you retract a scientific paper?
Articles that have been published shall remain extant, exact and unaltered as far as is possible. However, very occasionally circumstances may arise where an article is published that must later be retracted or even removed. Such actions must not be undertaken lightly and can only occur under exceptional circumstances.
How do you format a table in a research paper?
Therefore, tables should be created with the correct number of rows and columns – use one cell for each piece of data. You can add new rows and columns to an existing table by right clicking on the table, selecting “Insert” and choosing to insert new rows and columns above or below the existing rows or columns.
What is the most common reason for retractions?
The most common reason for retraction is compromises in peer review (44 articles, 33%), followed by plagiarism (22 articles, 16%) followed by problems with the data—that is, the data was found to be ‘unreliable’ (13 articles, 10%).
How is a paper retracted?
A retraction may be initiated by the editors of a journal, or by the author(s) of the papers (or their institution). Retractions are typically accompanied by a retraction notice written by the editors or authors explaining the reason for the retraction.
Why are science papers retracted?
COPE guidelines state that “The main purpose of retractions is to correct the literature and ensure its integrity rather than to punish authors who misbehave”, (3) but previous work has shown a notable resistance to admitting error in scientific papers.
How often are scientific journals retracted?
The data confirm that the absolute number of retractions has risen over the past few decades, from fewer than 100 annually before 2000 to nearly 1000 in 2014. But retractions remain relatively rare: Only about four of every 10,000 papers are now retracted.
What is APA format table?
In APA style, a table is a representation of information that uses rows and columns. Keep the following in mind when including a table in your paper: Place the table number above the table, in bold text and flush with the left margin.
How do you format a manuscript table?
Cell entries should clearly belong to a specific row and column. Tables should be prepared using a roman font; italic and bold should not be used for emphasis. Except for basic horizontal lines (see “Lines”), tables should be free of lines, boxes, arrows, or other devices unless they indicate the structure of the data.
What is a scientific retraction?
Abstract. Articles may be retracted when their findings are no longer considered trustworthy due to scientific misconduct or error, they plagiarize previously published work, or they are found to violate ethical guidelines.
What are the three main issues concerning the retraction?
The main cause of retraction was misconduct (65.3%), and the leading reasons were plagiarism, data management and compromise of the review process.
What does it mean when a scientific paper is retracted?
Retraction is removing an article from the scientific record at any point after its publication. Retraction is distinct from withdrawal, which occurs prior to publication.
How do you write a retraction?
include the reason for retraction, in clear, unambiguous language that differentiates misconduct from honest error. indicate which aspects of the paper are affected (i.e. which specific data or conclusions are invalid) indicate who initiated the retraction and which authors agreed to the retraction.
What makes a good table in a scientific paper?
Login Creating tables in scientific papers: basic formatting and titles Tables are a very important part of scientific papers. A good table should present the data simply, clearly and neatly, and allow the reader to understand the results without having to look at other sections of the paper.
When to use tables and figures in a research paper?
Tables and figures are great tools to present sizeable amounts of complex data in a space-saving, easy-to-understand way. Decide when to use a table, a figure, or text depending on the type of data you need to present and what your journal guidelines recommend.
What are the characteristics of a good research table?
Tables are a very important part of scientific papers. A good table should present the data simply, clearly and neatly, and allow the reader to understand the results without having to look at other sections of the paper. A bad table can be very confusing, and may reduce the chances of your paper being accepted.
What is the importance of scientific tables and graphs?
Scientific tables and graphs can be utilized to represent sizeable numerical or statistical data in a time- and space-effective manner. Readers are often drawn towards tables and figures, because they perceive it as easy-reading, as compared to reading a verbose account of the same content.