What was the hearth tax in Scotland?
Hearth Tax A tax of 14 shillings on every hearth in the kingdom by both landowners and tenants to raise money for the army, collected between 1690 and 1695. Hospitals and paupers were exempt from the tax. Hearth lists are arranged by county and then by parish or landed estate. This tax indicates the size of the house.
What is the meaning of hearth tax?
A hearth tax was a property tax in certain countries during the medieval and early modern period, levied on each hearth, thus by proxy on wealth. It was calculated based on the number of hearths, or fireplaces, within a municipal area and is considered among the first types of progressive tax.
Who paid hearth tax?
Each householder, or owner if the house was unoccupied, whose home was worth more than 20 shillings for rating purposes was required to pay twice yearly, 1 shilling for each hearth in their home, outhouse, office or edifice.
When was hearth taxed?
In England, hearth tax, also known as hearth money, chimney tax, or chimney money, was a tax imposed by Parliament in 1662, to support the Royal Household of King Charles II. Following the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Parliament calculated that the Royal Household needed an annual income of £1,200,000.
When was the window tax in England?
This tax was first imposed in England in 1696. It was intended to be a progressive tax in that houses with a smaller number of windows, initially ten, were subject to a 2 shilling house tax but exempt from the window tax.
Why do we have windows tax?
Window tax receipt, dated 25 March 1755. The window tax, based on the number of windows in a house, was first introduced in 1696 by William III to cover revenue lost by the clipping of coinage. It was a banded tax according to the number of windows in the house.
How did peasants pay taxes?
A peasant could pay in cash or in kind – seeds, equipment etc. Either way, tithes were a deeply unpopular tax. The church collected so much produce from this tax, that it had to be stored in huge tithe barns. Some of these barns can still be seen today.
Was there a window tax in Scotland?
In Scotland, a window tax was imposed after 1748. A house had to have at least seven windows or a rent of at least £5 to be taxed.
Why do old houses have bricked up windows?
It was a banded tax according to the number of windows in the house. For example, for a house in 1747 with ten to 14 windows, the tax was 6d per window; it increased to 9d with more windows. Not long after its introduction, people bricked up their windows to avoid paying the tax.
Why did Victorians brick up windows?
Why do some new houses have bricked up windows?
The window tax was a property tax based on the number of windows your home. To avoid the tax, homes from the period can be seen to have bricked-up the window apertures.
What happened to the Hearth Tax in Scotland?
There were huge difficulties in collecting the tax, particularly in the Highlands, and attempts to collect the tax went on in some parts of Scotland went on until 1695. The surviving hearth tax rolls (National Records of Scotland reference E69) are generally arranged by county and then parish or by landed estate.
What is a hearth tax?
A hearth tax was a property tax in certain countries during the medieval and early modern period, levied on each hearth, thus by proxy on wealth. It was calculated based on the number of hearths, or fireplaces, within a municipal area and is considered among the first types of progressive tax .
What is the British Record Society doing for Hearth Tax Research?
In 1995 the British Record Society joined with the Roehampton University Centre for Hearth Tax Research to publish a series of the texts of the hearth taxes of the 1660s and 1670s. In 2004 this project was adopted as a British Academy Research Project.
What is a hearth tax in Belgium?
A medieval hearth in Belgium dated circa 1465. A hearth tax was a property tax in certain countries during the medieval and early modern period, levied on each hearth, thus by proxy on each family unit. It was calculated based on the number of hearths, or fireplaces, within a municipal area.