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What is retinal arteriolar narrowing?

What is retinal arteriolar narrowing?

Background: Retinal arteriolar narrowing is a marker of chronic microvascular damage from hypertension. We hypothesized that the presence of retinal arteriolar narrowing increases the likelihood of chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with hypertension.

What is arteriolar reflex?

Increased arteriolar light reflex refers to an increased light reflex from the central portion of the retinal arteriolar surface (Figures 1 and ​ 2).

What is arteriolar attenuation?

Retinal arteriolar attenuation is a defining sign of hypertensive retinopathy. 14. The finding is considered an autoregulatory, physiological response to retinal artery vasospasm.

What are retinal arterioles?

The retinal arterioles are the small arterial branches of the retina and are composed of a single layer of vascular smooth muscle cells and an inner lining of longitudinally arranged endothelial cells12,13,14.

Why does neovascularization occur?

Neovascularization is initiated when some environmental stimulus tilts this balance toward a higher relative level of positive factors, a time known as the “angiogenic switch” (Carmeliet and Jain, 2000).

What is copper wiring in the eye?

Initially, the increased thickness of the vessel walls causes the reflex to be more diffuse and less bright. Progression of sclerosis and hyalinization causes the reflex to be more diffuse and the retinal arterioles to become red-brown. This is known as copper wiring.

What is the difference between diabetic retinopathy and hypertensive retinopathy?

Diabetic retinopathy is caused by high blood sugar. Hypertensive retinopathy is caused by high blood pressure. Both conditions are diagnosed by an eye doctor. Treatment options may include surgery, laser treatments, or eye injections.

Can high blood pressure cause an eye stroke?

An eye stroke is caused by obstructed blood flow that damages the retina. This is usually due to either narrowing of the blood vessels or a blood clot. It’s not always clear why eye stroke occurs, but certain health conditions, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, can increase your risk.

What is attenuated blood vessels?

Retinal vessel attenuation is recognized as an almost universal finding in eyes with RP, 1 and is mainly thought to reflect decreased metabolic demand of the degenerating retina, 2 where loss of oxygen consumption leads to increased local oxygen levels in the inner retina that in turn results in vasoconstriction.

What is retinal blood vessels?

The retinal vessels provide blood to the inner retinal neurons. The avascular photoreceptor layer relies on the choriocapillaris lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium to supply oxygen by diffusion.

What is arteriolar sclerosis?

Arteriolosclerosis is a form of cardiovascular disease involving hardening and loss of elasticity of arterioles or small arteries and is most often associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Retinal arterioles are the small arterial branches of the retina and have a structure similar to the arteries with reduced diameter size.

Are narrow retinal arteriolar diameters associated with diabetes mellitus?

Participants with narrower retinal arteriolar diameters had a higher incidence of diabetes (cumulative incidences of 5.1%, 7.0%, 9.2%, and 11.7%, comparing decreasing quartiles of arteriole-to-venule ratio).

Is there a link between arteriolar narrowing and diabetes risk?

Conclusions: Retinal arteriolar narrowing is related to risk of incident diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between systemic arteriolar narrowing associated with hypertension and diabetes development. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural