What is polyacrylamide copolymer?
Cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (PAMs) are a group of water-soluble polymers with a wide range of applications in industry, food processing, agriculture and waste management. One of the major applications for PAM is sludge dewatering in municipal waste water treatment plants (MWWTPs).
What is crosslinker?
Cross-linker increases the viscosity of gelling agents by connecting the separate gel polymers together. Cross-linker significantly increases the viscosity of linear gel by increasing the molecular weight of the base polymer by linking multiple molecules together.
What is a crosslinker polymer?
In chemistry and biology a cross-link is a bond or a short sequence of bonds that links one polymer chain to another. These links may take the form of covalent bonds or ionic bonds and the polymers can be either synthetic polymers or natural polymers (such as proteins).
What is the difference between acrylamide and bisacrylamide?
Acrylamide is the monomer used for the production of polyacrylamide polymer. Bisacrylamide is used to make crosslinks between these polyacrylamide polymer chains. The main difference between acrylamide and Bisacrylamide is that acrylamide has a C-N bond whereas Bisacrylamide contains an N-C-N bond.
What is acrylamide monomer?
Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH2=CHC(O)NH2. It is a white odorless solid, soluble in water and several organic solvents. From the chemistry perspective, acrylamide is a vinyl-substituted primary amide (CONH2).
How do you make polyacrylamide gel?
Polyacrylamide gels are prepared by free radical polymerization of acrylamide and a comonomer crosslinker such as bis-acrylamide. Polymerization is initiated by ammonium persulfate (APS) with tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as the catalyst (see figure below).
What is a UV crosslinker?
The Crosslinkers are designed to measure and control the ultraviolet (UV) radiation within the exposure chamber. A unique UV sensor continually measures the UV energy and automatically adjusts to variations in UV intensity that occurs as the UV tubes age.
How is crosslinking degree measured?
The very first method to measure the degree of crosslinking is the soxhlet extraction process. The non-linked polymer should be leach or dissolve, so the weight difference between inital and final weight should give the non-link amount.
How do you make acrylamide bisacrylamide solution?
Acrylamide Stock Solution Preparation and Recipe
- Prepare 800 mL of distilled water in a suitable container.
- Add 389.6 g of acrylamide to the solution.
- Add 10.4 g of bisacrylamide to the solution.
- Add distilled water until the volume is 1 L.
- Filter the stock solution using Whatman filter paper and store at 4°C.
What is acrylamide bisacrylamide?
Acrylamide/Bisacrylamide solutions are used in casting polyacrylamide gels, commonly used in protein electrophoresis. Acrylamide is a water-soluble monomer that helps to form a transparent and insoluble gel that is stable.
How do you polymerize acrylamide?
Chemical polymerization is initiated by ammonium persulfate, while photochemical polymerization is initiated by riboflavin (or riboflavin-5′-phosphate), or by a combination of riboflavin and ammonium persulfate. Initiation and polymerization are catalyzed by TEMED.
What is a safe level of acrylamide?
Tolerable intakes of acrylamide should be set at 2.6 micrograms per kilogram of body weight to avoid the cancer risk, says a new toxicology study from the US. This would be equivalent to 182 micrograms for a 70 kg human as a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for carcinogenic levels.