What is immunofixation interpretation?
Serum immunofixation. The immunofixation blood test is used to identify proteins called immunoglobulins in blood. Too much of the same immunoglobulin is usually due to different types of blood cancer. Immunoglobulins are antibodies that help your body fight infection.
How do you read immunofixation results?
Immunofixation can either reveal a normal pattern or identify a monoclonal protein or a polyclonal immunoglobulin pattern. A normal result includes a darker immunoglobulin G (IgG) lane, a lighter immunoglobulin A (IgA), an absent immunoglobulin M (IgM), and a denser kappa compared to lambda lane, with ratio of 2:1.
What does an abnormal immunofixation mean?
An abnormal result may be due to: Amyloidosis (buildup of abnormal proteins in tissues and organs) Leukemia or Waldenström macroglobulinemia (types of white blood cell cancers) Lymphoma (cancer of the lymph tissue) Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS)
What is the purpose of immunofixation?
Immunofixation permits the detection and typing of monoclonal antibodies or immunoglobulins in serum or urine. It is of great importance for the diagnosis and monitoring of certain blood related diseases such as myeloma.
Can you have multiple myeloma with normal immunofixation?
Here, we report a rare presentation of multiple myeloma with normal serum protein electrophoresis but elevated serum-free light chains. The absence of monoclonal gammopathy on protein electrophoresis or normal immunofixation does not negate the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
What is the difference between serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation?
Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP) is used to identify the presence of the Bence Jones protein in urine. Immunofixation is used to identify the subtype of protein (ie, IgA lambda).
What is the most definitive test to confirm a diagnosis of multiple myeloma?
The complete blood count (CBC) is a test that measures the levels of red cells, white cells, and platelets in the blood. If there are too many myeloma cells in the bone marrow, some of these blood cell levels can be low. The most common finding is a low red blood cell count (anemia).
What is a restricted band M spike?
-A characteristic monoclonal band (M-spike) is often found on protein electrophoresis (PEL) in the gamma globulin region and, more rarely, in the beta or alpha-2 regions. The finding of an M-spike, restricted migration, or hypogammaglobulinemic PEL pattern is suggestive of a possible monoclonal protein.
What does abnormal immunological finding in serum mean?
Abnormal test results indicate that there is something affecting the immune system and may suggest the need for further testing. Abnormal Igs are not diagnostic but can, in association with an appropriate clinical history and other tests results, be a strong indicator of a disease or condition.
How do I read myeloma panels?
High levels mean the disease is more advanced and may indicate a poor prognosis. The presence of any M spike is abnormal and shows the presence of an abnormal clone of plasma cells. If the amount of protein is ≥30 g/L and/or there are other disease symptoms, the patient may have myeloma.
How accurate is Immunofixation electrophoresis?
The detection rate of M protein by immunofixation electrophoresis detection was better (105 cases, 100%) than that of serum protein electrophoresis (101 cases, 96.19%, p<0.001).