What is Gondite?
Gondites are defined as the metamorphosed equivalent of non-calcareous, manganiferous, arenaceous and argillaceous sediments, composed of spessartine and quartz with minor Mn silicates and oxides (Roy, 1965).
What type of rock is Psilomelane?
Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite.
What causes Manganism?
Chronic exposure to excessive manganese levels can lead to a variety of psychiatric and motor disturbances, termed manganism. Generally, exposure to ambient manganese air concentrations in excess of 5 micrograms Mn/m3 can lead to Mn-induced symptoms.
How manganese is formed?
Pure manganese is produced by hydrometallurgical and electrolytic processes, while ferromanganese and silicomanganese are produced by the smelting of ores in a blast furnace or, more commonly, in an electric furnace.
What is the composition of charnockite?
Composition. The charnockite series includes rocks of many different types, some being felsic and rich in quartz and microcline, others mafic and full of pyroxene and olivine, while there are also intermediate varieties corresponding mineralogically to norites, quartz-norites and diorites.
What is Khondalite rocks?
Khondalite is a foliated metamorphic rock. In India, it is also called Bezwada Gneiss and Kailasa Gneiss. It was named after the Khond tribe of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh because well-formed examples of the rock were found in the inhabited hills of these regions of eastern India.
What is Psilomelane Dendrite?
Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese oxide with variable amounts of barium and potassium.
How is Psilomelane formed?
Psilomelane forms as a weathering product of other manganese minerals, as concretions or dendrites deposited by ground water or as nodules precipitated from lake water. Such nodules have been found at various places in Green Bay, for example (Rossman et. al., 1972).
Which element causes parkinsonism?
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element necessary for physiological processes that support development, growth and neuronal function. Secondary to elevated exposure or decreased excretion, Mn accumulates in the basal ganglia region of the brain and may cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome, referred to as manganism.
How is manganism diagnosed?
Diagnosis can be made by measuring manganese levels in pubic hair. Furthermore, T1-weighted MRI brain imaging shows typical pallidal lesions, whereas dopamine transporter (DAT) scans are normal. There is currently no effective treatment.
How many valence electrons are in manganese?
Transition Metals This means that manganese (Mn) has the electron configuration [Ar]4s²3d⁵ and 7 valence electrons.
What is the name of mn2+?
Manganese(2+) | Mn+2 – PubChem.