What is contrastive analysis hypothesis?
Contrastive analysis hypothesis is an area of comparative linguistics which is concerned with the comparison of two or more languages to determine the differences or similarities between them, either for theoretical purposes or purposes external to the analysis itself.
What is markedness differential hypothesis?
Markedness Differential Hypothesis states that the areas of difficulty that a language learner will have can be predicted on the basis of a systematic comparison of the grammars of the NL, the TL, and the markedness relations stated in universal grammar.
What is markedness theory in semantics?
Markedness Theory proposes that in the languages of the world certain linguistic elements are more basic, natural, and frequent (unmarked) than others which are referred to as marked. The concept of Markedness is first proposed by the Prague School scholars Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy and Roman Jakobson.
What is markedness in SLA?
Markedness is defined as follows by Eckman (1977): Markedness: A phenomenon A in some language is more marked than B if the presence of A in a language implies the presence of B; but the presence of B does not imply the presence of A.
What is contrastive analysis example?
Contrastive analysis is the study and comparison of two languages. For example, this can be comparing English with Latin or Basque with Iroquois. This is done by looking at the structural similarities and differences of the studied languages.
What are the stages of contrastive analysis?
A contrastive analysis must proceed through four steps: description, selection, contrast, and prediction. Most analyses are weakened by insufficient care at one or more of these steps, each of which is beset with problems.
What is markedness phonology?
The term markedness is used in phonology to capture the central observation that not all elements in a phonological system are of equal status.
What is UG in linguistics?
The Universal Grammar (UG) hypothesis—the idea that human languages, as superficially diverse as they are, share some fundamental similarities, and that these are attributable to innate principles unique to language: that deep down, there is only one human language (Chomsky, 2000a, p.
What is phonological markedness?
What is typological markedness?
(Gundel et al. 1986:108) Under this view, typological markedness is an asymmetric, irreflexive and transitive relationship between linguistic representations across the world’s languages, such that the presence of one structure in a language implies the presence of another structure, but not vice versa.
What are the main objectives of contrastive analysis?
The goal of contrastive analysis is to predict linguis- tic difficulties experienced during the acquisition of a second language; as formulated by Lado (1957), it suggests that difficulties in acquiring a new (second) language are derived from the differences between the new language and the native (first) language of …
What are the steps of contrastive analysis?