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What is an Injectisome?

What is an Injectisome?

Injectisomes are transmembrane complexes used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate so-called effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells, where the effectors influence host behaviour in favour of the bacterium [12,13].

Is Salmonella a typhimurium?

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most common serotype causing NTS infections related to human illnesses, such as acute gastroenteritis [2]. Food can be contaminated with the pathogen during pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest periods.

What is type 3 secretion system in Salmonella?

Type III secretion systems are molecular machines used by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to inject proteins, known as effectors, directly into eukaryotic host cells. These proteins manipulate host signal transduction pathways and cellular processes to the pathogen’s advantage.

What do effector proteins do?

Effector proteins may have many different activities, but usually help the pathogen to invade host tissue, suppress its immune system, or otherwise help the pathogen to survive. Effector proteins are usually critical for virulence.

What is Fimbriae microbiology?

Fimbriae are long filamentous polymeric protein structures located at the surface of bacterial cells. They enable the bacteria to bind to specific receptor structures and thereby to colonise specific surfaces.

Is Salmonella typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium same?

Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Typhi are closely related. However, there are distinct differences in the type and severity of infectious disease they both cause. This difference in infections is the result of differences in their genetic makeup.

What is Salmonella Typhimurium common name?

Initially, each Salmonella “species” was named according to clinical considerations, for example Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse typhoid fever), S. cholerae-suis.

What are the virulence factors of Salmonella typhimurium?

2. Virulence factors of Salmonella Typhi. Virulence factors in Salmonella Typhi are involved in the various stages of infection, namely: the production of toxins (LPS) endotoxin, enterotoxin, cytotoxin), colonization, adhesion and invasion, as well as survival inside the host cells [14] (Figure 1).

How does type 3 secretion work?

Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are complex bacterial structures that provide gram-negative pathogens with a unique virulence mechanism enabling them to inject bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cell cytoplasm, bypassing the extracellular milieu.

What is the function of the injectisome and bacterial flagellum?

The injectisome and bacterial flagellum are both large assemblies of 20 to 30 different proteins and export their component proteins for self-assembly at the distal, growing ends. Their basal bodies function as specific protein export apparatuses classified as the type III secretion system (T3SS) 1, 3.

Can cryoEM image analysis be used to analyze FBB isolated from Salmonella enterica?

Although the structure of FBB isolated from Salmonella enterica has already been revealed by cryoEM image analysis 6, we carried out cryoEM image analysis of FBB isolated from the same strain of Salmonella enterica that we used for in situ structural analysis of NC and FBB, in order to compare the structures of in situ and isolated FBB as precis…

Does ATP-dependent protease regulate flagellum synthesis in Salmonella entrica serovar Typhimurium?

The ClpXP ATP-dependent protease regulates flagellum synthesis in Salmonella entrica serovar typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 184, 645–653 (2002).