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What is ACS protocol?

What is ACS protocol?

The most frequently used regimen is IV metoprolol 2-5 mg given every 5 minutes (up to 15 mg total) followed by 25-100 mg given orally twice a day. Beta-blockers should not be used acutely in patients with cardiogenic shock or signs of heart failure on presentation.

What are the 3 types of ACS?

Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and unstable angina are the three traditional types of ACS.

What conditions fall under ACS?

They include:

  • Chest pain (angina) or discomfort, often described as aching, pressure, tightness or burning.
  • Pain spreading from the chest to the shoulders, arms, upper abdomen, back, neck or jaw.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Indigestion.
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Sudden, heavy sweating (diaphoresis)

What is the gold standard test for diagnosis of ACS?

Cardiac troponin (cTn) has established itself firmly as the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of ACS. cTn should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of ACS, in conjunction with physical examination and ECG.

What is the priority of care for a patient diagnosed with ACS?

General priorities for patients with ACS are haemodynamic monitoring and close observation of vital signs. A review of fluid status can provide information about renal perfusion, as some patients may present with, or develop, heart failure.

What is the immediate treatment for ACS?

Thrombolytics (clot busters) help dissolve a blood clot that’s blocking an artery. Nitroglycerin improves blood flow by temporarily widening blood vessels. Antiplatelet drugs help prevent blood clots from forming and include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), prasugrel (Effient) and others.

What is the most common cause of ACS?

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused primarily by atherosclerosis. Most cases of ACS occur from disruption of a previously nonsevere lesion (an atherosclerotic lesion that was previously hemodynamically insignificant yet vulnerable to rupture).

What is one goal of therapy for patients with ACS?

The immediate goals of treatment for acute coronary syndrome are: Relieve pain and distress. Improve blood flow. Restore heart function as quickly and as best as possible.

What is a normal troponin I level?

For example, the normal range for troponin I is between 0 and 0.04 ng/mL but for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) normal values are below 14ng/L. Other types of heart injury may cause a rise in troponin levels.

What are the 3 cardiac enzymes?

Cardiac enzymes ― also known as cardiac biomarkers ― include myoglobin, troponin and creatine kinase.

What is Nurses role in managing a patient with ACS and MI?

Nurses have a crucial role in the clinical management of patients with ACS, by helping them understand their condition and care, and promoting secondary prevention.

What interventions would you expect in the management of ACS?

Treatment should be given for a minimum of 48 hours and up to eight days. Additional acute treatment options include supplemental oxygen, nitroglycerin, intravenous morphine, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins.