What is a transcription factor simple definition?
transcription factor, molecule that controls the activity of a gene by determining whether the gene’s DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid). The enzyme RNA polymerase catalyzes the chemical reactions that synthesize RNA, using the gene’s DNA as a template.
What are the three types of transcription factor?
Once it’s bound, the transcription factor makes it either harder or easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter of the gene.
- Activators. Some transcription factors activate transcription.
- Repressors. Other transcription factors repress transcription.
- Binding sites.
What does AP-1 transcription factor do?
Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections. AP-1 controls a number of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis.
What does a transcription factor do?
Transcription factors are proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA. Transcription factors include a wide number of proteins, excluding RNA polymerase, that initiate and regulate the transcription of genes.
What are the types of transcription factors?
General transcription factors are involved in the formation of a preinitiation complex. The most common are abbreviated as TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH. They are ubiquitous and interact with the core promoter region surrounding the transcription start site(s) of all class II genes.
What are the different RNA’s that are transcribed by certain type of RNA polymerase?
These polymerases differ in the number and type of subunits they contain, as well as the class of RNAs they transcribe; that is, RNA pol I transcribes ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), RNA pol II transcribes RNAs that will become messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and also small regulatory RNAs, and RNA pol III transcribes small RNAs such …
What is an example of a transcription factor?
The Hox transcription factor family, for example, is important for proper body pattern formation in organisms as diverse as fruit flies to humans. Another example is the transcription factor encoded by the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene, which plays a major role in determining sex in humans.
What is a transcription factor quizlet?
Transcription Factors. The proteins that bind to DNA regulatory elements (promoter, enhancer) to activate or repress transcription.