What is a choroidal hemangioma?
Choroidal hemangioma is an uncommon benign vascular tumor of the choroid that can be circumscribed or diffuse. Circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas are usually diagnosed between the second to fourth decade of life when they cause visual disturbances owing to the development of an exudative retinal detachment.
What is the treatment of choice for symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas?
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the treatment of choice for symptomatic cases. Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT), laser photocoagulation, or intravitreal anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) injection remains as alternative forms or adjuvant therapy to PDT.
What is retinal capillary hemangioma?
Retinal capillary hemangiomas are vascular hamartomas of the retina. Findings from histologic examination of RCHs demonstrate normal endothelial cells, basement membranes, and pericytes, but new vessels can develop on the anterior surface of the tumor.
What is choroidal osteoma?
Choroidal osteoma is a benign ossifying tumor with mature bone replacing choroid. It is commonly juxtapapillary or peripapillary, but may extend to the macula. It is rare that it would be found only in the macula. It is yellow-white to orange-red in color with clumping of brown, orange, or gray pigment.
What causes choroidal hemangioma?
The diffuse choroidal hemangioma occurs frequently in association with Sturge-Weber syndrome and the circumscribed hemangioma has no systemic associations. Timely diagnosis and treatment is critical as these benign tumors predominantly affect the posterior choroid, causing significant visual disturbance.
What is the cause of a hemangioma?
Hemangiomas of the skin develop when there’s an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels in one area of the body. Experts aren’t sure why blood vessels group together like this, but they believe it’s caused by certain proteins produced in the placenta during gestation (the time when you’re in the womb).
Is cavernous hemangioma cancerous?
A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Also known as hepatic hemangiomas or cavernous hemangiomas, these liver masses are common and are estimated to occur in up to 20% of the population.
What is retinal Hemangioblastoma?
Retinal hemangioblastomas are tumors in the retina, caused by the unchecked growth of leaky, irregular blood vessels. They are one of the most common VHL manifestations, affecting about 60% of VHL patients, and are frequently one of the earliest to present themselves.
How rare is choroidal melanoma?
Incidence of primary choroidal melanoma is about 6 cases per 1 million population. Perhaps because of increased sunlight exposure, there appears to be a higher incidence of uveal melanoma in the southern latitudes of the United States.
Where is a choroidal nevus located?
A choroidal nevus (plural: nevi) is typically a darkly pigmented lesion found in the back of the eye. It is similar to a freckle or mole found on the skin and arises from the pigment-containing cells in the choroid, the layer of the eye just under the white outer wall (sclera). (Figures 1 and 2).