Discover the world with our lifehacks

What drugs are Thioamides?

What drugs are Thioamides?

Thioamides. Propylthiouracil and methimazole are the most important antithyroid drugs used in the United States within the thioamides (Fig. 29-4). These drugs are related to thiourea and contain a thiocarbamide group that is essential for their antithyroid activity.

What are Thioamides used for?

Thioamides (or rarely thionamides) are major drugs for treatment of thyrotoxicosis and hyperthyroidism. Some alternative antithyroid drugs are iodide, glucocorticoids and anion inhibitors (perchlorate (ClO4–), pertechnetate (TcO4–), and thiocyanate (SCN–).

What will be the toxicity of Thioamides?

Though rare, a serious toxicity associated with the thioamides is which of the following? Rarely, the thioamides cause severe adverse reactions that include agranulocytosis, vasculitis, hepatic damage, and hypoprothrombinemia.

What is the meaning of propylthiouracil?

propylthiouracil. / (ˌprəʊpɪlˌθaɪəʊˈjʊərəsɪl) / noun. a white crystalline water-insoluble substance with an intensely bitter taste, used in medicine to treat hyperthyroidism.

What are the causes of cretinism?

Cretinism is a condition of severe physical and mental retardation due to iodine deficiency, and specifically due to deficiency of thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.

What type of drug is carbimazole?

Carbimazole is a drug used for the reduction of thyroid function. An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to methimazole, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.

What are the side effects of carbimazole?

5. Side effects of carbimazole

  • feeling sick (nausea)
  • being sick (vomiting) or diarrhoea.
  • feeling dizzy.
  • headache.
  • painful joints.
  • itchy skin or rash.
  • thinning hair.

How does propylthiouracil work in the body?

Propylthiouracil is in a class of medications called antithyroid agents. It works by stopping the thyroid gland from making thyroid hormone.

What is the side effect of propylthiouracil?

SIDE EFFECTS: Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, mild rash/itching, or headache may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Can methimazole cause liver damage?

Methimazole is also capable of causing clinically apparent, idiosyncratic liver injury. The onset of hepatotoxicity is usually within 2 to 12 weeks of starting and the pattern of enzyme elevations is typically cholestatic or mixed, although hepatocellular patterns have also been described.

How long can you stay on methimazole?

“Long-term, low-dose methimazole treatment for 60-120 months is a safe and effective treatment for Graves hyperthyroidism and is accompanied by much higher remission rates than the usual 18-24 months of methimazole treatment,” he summarized.

What are thioamides used for?

One of the best-known thioamides is thioacetamide, which is used as a source of the sulfide ion and is a building block in heterocyclic chemistry . Thioamides or anti-thyroid drugs are also a class of drugs that are used to control thyrotoxicosis .

What is the structure of thioamide?

Thioamide. A thioamide (rarely, thionamide, but also known as thiourylenes) is a functional group with the general structure R–CS–NR′R″, where R, R′, and R″ are organic groups. They are analogous to amides but they exhibit greater multiple bond character along the C-N bond, resulting in a larger rotational barrier.

What are thioamides and peptides?

Thioamides have been incorporated into peptides as isosteres for the amide bond. Peptide modifications are analogues of the native peptide, which can reveal the structure-activity relationship ( SAR ). Analogues of peptides can also be used as drugs with an improved oral bioavailability.

How do you make thioamides?

Thioamides are typically prepared by treating amides with phosphorus sulfides such as phosphorus pentasulfide, a reaction first described in the 1870s. Alternative routes include the use of Lawesson’s reagent or the reaction of nitriles with hydrogen sulfide :