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What does a beta clamp do in DNA replication?

What does a beta clamp do in DNA replication?

A DNA clamp, also known as a sliding clamp or β-clamp, is a protein complex that serves as a processivity-promoting factor in DNA replication. As a critical component of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the clamp protein binds DNA polymerase and prevents this enzyme from dissociating from the template DNA strand.

What is clamp loading?

Efficient DNA duplication requires the DNA polymerase to be tethered on the DNA strand by a direct interaction with a clamp encircling the DNA. A clamp loader complex loads such clamps onto the DNA strand by opening the clamp ring while at the same time binding and hydrolyzing ATP.

What does the clamp loading protein do?

Clamp loaders are pentameric ATPases of the AAA+ family that operate to ensure processive DNA replication. They do so by loading onto DNA the ring-shaped sliding clamps that tether the polymerase to the DNA.

Does loading of the sliding clamp on DNA require ATP?

Clamp loaders require ATP to load clamps. Ultimately, ATP binding and hydrolysis promote conformational changes in the clamp loader that modulate its affinity for the clamp and DNA.

What loads the sliding clamp?

Instead, ATP-dependent complexes known as clamp loaders open the sliding clamps and load them on to primed DNA in the correct orientation for productive engagement of the polymerase (the clamp loaders are the γ/τ complex in bacteria, Replication Factor-C (RFC) in eukaryotes and archaea, and gp44/62 in T4 bacteriophage …

How would a nonfunctional clamp loader affect DNA replication?

Which result would be a consequence of having a nonfunctioning clamp loader in a DNA replication reaction? The polymerase would bind to the wrong area of the DNA. Primers would not be formed.

How much clamping force should be used?

We recommend a 2-to-1 safety factor (2580 lbs). Even though FL (the combined force from all clamps on the left side) equals zero, a small clamping force may be desirable to prevent vibration. Too much clamping force can be as bad as too little. Excess force can cause fixture and machine-table distortion or even damage.

What is replisome and Primosome?

Primosomes, a subcomplex of replisomes primarily composed of replicative helicases and primases, play an essential role in the progress of the replication fork by catalyzing DNA duplex unwinding and oligonucleotide primer synthesis necessary for Okazaki fragment formation on the lagging strand by helicases and primases …

How is sliding DNA clamp loading controlled by ATP binding and hydrolysis?

Clamp loaders and sliding clamps The clamp loader has low affinity for both clamp and primer-template DNA in the absence of ATP. Upon binding ATP, the clamp loader can bind the clamp and open it. The binding of primer-template DNA activates ATP hydrolysis, leading to ejection of the clamp loader.

Which result would be a consequence of having a nonfunctioning clamp loader in a DNA replication reaction multiple choice question?

How is clamp load calculated?

2. Clamp load is also known as preload or initial load in tension on bolt. Clamp load (lb.) is calculated by arbitrarily assuming usable bolt strength is 75% of bolt proof load (psi) times tensile stress area (sq. in.)

How do you calculate clamping force required?

The required clamping force can be calculated from the cavity pressure inside the mold and the shot projected area, on which this pressure is acting. There are variables that affect the clamping force calculation, like the material type (low-flow versus high-flow plastic), and the depth of the part.