## What do you mean by topological defects?

Topological defects are quasiparticles whose topological nature provides some stability against perturbations. Skyrmions, domain walls, dislocations in crystals, vortices in superconductors and superfluids, and strings and monopoles in liquid crystals are all examples of topological defects.

## What does a condensed matter physicist do?

The field of condensed matter physics explores the macroscopic and microscopic properties of matter. Condensed Matter physicists study how matter arises from a large number of interacting atoms and electrons, and what physical properties it has as a result of these interactions.

**What is quantum condensed matter physics?**

Quantum Condensed Matter Physics at BU Theorists in quantum condensed-matter physics try to understand the behavior of complex systems of atoms and molecules. Their interests include high-temperature superconductivity, quantum phase transitions, spin systems, disorder, and other strongly correlated phenomena.

**What is topological state?**

A topologically ordered state is a state with complicated non-local quantum entanglement. The non-locality means that the quantum entanglement in a topologically ordered state is distributed among many different particles. As a result, the pattern of quantum entanglements cannot be destroyed by local perturbations.

### What is condensed matter theory?

Condensed matter physics is the study of the macroscopic and mesoscopic properties of matter. Condensed matter theory seeks to use the well-established laws of microscopic physics to predict the collective and structural properties of large numbers of electrons, atoms or molecules.

### Who discovered condensed matter physics?

chemist Humphry Davy

Classical physics One of the first studies of condensed states of matter was by English chemist Humphry Davy, in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

**What is topological quantum matter?**

Topological quantum materials exhibit unusual properties, such as exotic surface states and anomalous transport phenomena, that are unaffected by deformations, e.g., stretching, compressing, or twisting of the material, or adding disorder [1].

**How is topology used in physics?**

Topology has provided a framework in physics in other ways, such as the development of topological quantum field theories. String theory is a generalization of this idea in which particles are modeled by one-dimensional objects called strings.

#### Who contributed the theory of condensed matter?

One of the first studies of condensed states of matter was by English chemist Humphry Davy, in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

#### What are topological quantum materials?

Topological quantum materials are a class of compounds featuring electronic band structures, which are topologically distinct from common metals and insulators. These materials have emerged as exceptionally fertile ground for materials science research.

**Is topology important for physicists?**

Abstract. Topology is the study of properties of systems that remain unchanged as the system is continuously bent, twisted, or otherwise deformed. Over the past century, topology has come to be recognized as being of central importance in physics.

**What are the applications of topology in condensed matter theory?**

Topological methods have been used in several problems of condensed matter theory. PoĆ©naru and Toulouse used topological methods to obtain a condition for line (string) defects in liquid crystals that can cross each other without entanglement.

## What is topological defects?

Why is it interesting? Why is it interesting? Topological defects are of common interest to condensed matter physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and cosmology, as well as algebraic topology.

## Could topological defects in the universe be observed without energy expenditure?

Topological defects created during the universe’s formation could theoretically be observed without significant energy expenditure. In the Big Bang theory, the universe cools from an initial hot, dense state triggering a series of phase transitions much like what happens in condensed-matter systems such as superconductors.

**How do you determine the authenticity of a topological defect?**

The authenticity of a topological defect depends on the nature of the vacuum in which the system will tend towards if infinite time elapses; false and true topological defects can be distinguished if the defect is in a false vacuum and a true vacuum, respectively.