What causes Pseudo-nitzschia?
This syndrome is caused by the potent neurotoxin domoic acid, which is produced by diatoms in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.
Does Pseudo-nitzschia cause disease?
An Early Warning System for Pseudo-nitzschia Harmful Algal Blooms on Pacific Northwest Outer-Coast Beaches. Blooms of some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produce a neurotoxin that accumulates in shellfish, which can cause illness and even death in humans who eat them.
What toxin does Pseudo-nitzschia Fraudulenta produce?
neurotoxin domoic acid
The neurotoxin domoic acid is produced by the globally-distributed diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia. This toxin is responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, which can result in illness or death in humans and regularly causes mass mortalities of marine mammals and birds.
Is Pseudo-nitzschia phytoplankton?
Among other potentially toxic phytoplankton species, the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia occurs frequently and is a potential source of domoic acid (DA), causing shellfish toxicity and human intoxication.
Where is Pseudo-nitzschia found?
Pseudo-nitzschia species have been observed in all oceans of the world, including the Arctic and Antarctic. In North America, they have been documented along the Pacific coast from Canada to California, along the Atlantic Northeast coast of Canada, North Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico.
What toxins does Alexandrium produce?
Impacts & Toxicity. About half of known Alexandrium species produce a suite of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), of which saxitoxin is the most potent. Saxitoxins (STXs) are neurotoxins that bind voltage-gated sodium channels in cell membranes, inhibiting membrane depolarization and action potentials.
Where is pseudo-nitzschia found?
What is domoic acid poisoning?
Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin that can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea at lower doses and seizures, coma, irreversible memory loss (“Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning”), and death at higher doses. Domoic acid is produced by marine algal blooms under certain conditions.
What is amnesic shellfish poisoning?
Domoic acid is a marine biotoxin toxin called Amnesic Shellfish Poison (ASP) which is produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia sp., a type of naturally occurring microscopic algae. Shellfish eat these algae and can retain the toxin. People can become ill from eating shellfish contaminated with Amnesic Shellfish Poison.
How does Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid?
Domoic acid (DA) is a naturally occurring toxin produced by blooms of some species of the diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia. When shellfish and other marine organisms feed on the toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, they concentrate the toxin within them.
What toxin does Alexandrium produce?
The dinoflagellate alga Alexandrium fundyense produces a suite of potent neurotoxins (saxitoxin and its derivatives) resulting in Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). PSP is known to impair physiological functions in bivalve molluscs and copepods.
What causes alexandrium Catenella?
Alexandrium catenella is a species of dinoflagellates. It is among the group of Alexandrium species that produce toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, and is a cause of red tide….
What is the habitat of Pseudo nitzschia?
In general, diatoms flourish in nutrient-rich waters with high light penetration. Some species of Pseudo-nitzschia can grow in a broad temperature range (4-20 °C), making it possible for them to inhabit a diverse range of habitats.
What is the morphology of Pseudo-nitzschia?
Morphology and physiology. Pseudo-nitzschia species are bilaterally symmetrical Pennate diatoms. Cell walls are made up of elongated silica frustules. The silica wall is fairly dense which leads to negative buoyancy, providing a number of advantages.
Does Pseudo-nitzschia have nitric oxide synthase genes?
“Transcriptome sequencing of three Pseudo-nitzschia species reveals comparable gene sets and the presence of Nitric Oxide Synthase genes in diatoms”. Scientific Reports. 5: 12329. Bibcode: 2015NatSR…512329D. doi: 10.1038/srep12329. PMC 4648414. PMID 26189990.
What triggers Pseudo-nitzschia complexes?
The results show that the occurrence of the two Pseudo-nitzschia complexes was triggered by different nutrient conditions. The two complexes were positively correlated to high N:P ratios, confirming that nitrate-rich environments can favour Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth.