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What are the phenotypes of asthma?

What are the phenotypes of asthma?

Several different types or what we call “phenotypes” of asthma have been described. These include: allergic, non-allergic, aspirin-sensitive, severe, exercise-induced, neutrophilic, fixed-obstruction, and occupational.

How are the main asthma phenotypes determined?

Several datasets apply clustering algorithms that measure the behavior of several clinical parameters (e.g., demographics, lung function, BMI, ACQ, atopy, and blood eosinophils) to large cohorts to identify asthma phenotypes.

What is phenotypic assessment in asthma?

Asthma is heterogeneous, meaning that there are many different types of asthma, across the whole range of severity from mild to severe. Recognisable clusters of demographic features, clinical characteristics, lung function and inflammation are called “asthma phenotypes”.

What is an eosinophilic phenotype of asthma?

Eosinophilic asthma has been defined as a distinct phenotype of asthma that is associated with tissue and sputum eosinophilia, thickening of the basement membrane zone, and often by corticosteroid responsiveness.

What is phenotype and Endotype?

An endotype is a subtype of a disease condition, which is defined by a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. A disease endotype clearly differs from a disease phenotype that defines any observable characteristic of a disease without any implication of a mechanism.

What is phenotypic assessment?

Phenotypic screening is a type of screening used in biological research and drug discovery to identify substances such as small molecules, peptides, or RNAi that alter the phenotype of a cell or an organism in a desired manner.

What is the difference between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma?

We define eosinophilic asthma as symptomatic airway inflammation characterised by the presence of eosinophils in the airways. Non-eosinophilic asthma then represents symptomatic asthma in the absence of eosinophilic airway inflammation.

How is eosinophilic phenotype determined?

Eosinophil Tests

  1. Sputum induction test. For this one, you cough up a mucus sample that your doctor sends off for testing. It has several advantages.
  2. Blood test. For this test, your doctor takes a blood sample to measure eosinophils in your blood.
  3. Bronchial biopsy. This test is much more involved than the others.

What are 3 examples of phenotypes?

In humans, phenotype examples include earwax type, height, blood type, eye color, freckles, and hair color. And phenotypes aren’t just physical traits. Behavior is also considered a phenotype.

How many phenotypes are there?

A fetus receives one of these three alleles from each of its parents. This produces four possible phenotypes (blood types) and six possible genotypes.

What is T2 in asthma?

Abstract. Type 2 (T2) inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, along with other inflammatory mediators, lead to increased cellular eosinophilic inflammation. It is likely that around half of all patients with asthma have evidence of T2-high inflammation.

What is the phenotype of allergic asthma?

Early onset or “extrinsic” allergic asthma is the archetypal asthma phenotype. The presentation ranges from mild to severe, and it has not been elucidated whether severe asthma is the result of evolution from a milder form or instead arises de novo as a severe type during childhood [2].

Why is phenotyping important in asthma?

A person’s phenotype may change over time. This makes it hard for doctors to understand a person’s asthma, making it hard to treat. 1,7 Still, phenotyping is very useful for studying, diagnosing, and treating asthma. But, someday there will be a shift to endotypes.

Are endotypes of asthma evolving?

Conclusions As more and more innate and adaptive immune cell types and cytokines are identified as important drivers of asthma, it is evident that asthma endotype definitions are still fluid and continue to evolve.

What are t2-high phenotypes of asthma?

T2-high phenotypes have been classified into three groups: early-onset allergic asthma, late-onset eosinophilic asthma, and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Clinical characteristics of these groups are described along with growing evidence of clinical correlates that may result in potential etiologies of T2-high groups.