What are examples of aniline?
As additives to rubber, aniline derivatives such as phenylenediamines and diphenylamine, are antioxidants. Illustrative of the drugs prepared from aniline is paracetamol (acetaminophen, Tylenol). The principal use of aniline in the dye industry is as a precursor to indigo, the blue of blue jeans.
What does aniline do in a reaction?
Anilines – Reactions Oxidation Reaction- The oxidation reactions of anilines compounds leads to the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds. Basicity- As it is known that anilines are weak bases. On reaction with strong acids, the compounds form ions of anilinium.
What is aniline?
Aniline is used to make a wide variety of products such as polyurethane foam, agricultural chemicals, synthetic dyes, antioxidants, stabilizers for the rubber industry, herbicides, varnishes and explosives.
What is the nature of aniline?
Aniline is basic in nature.
Where is aniline found?
Small amounts of aniline may be found in some foods, such as corn, grains, rhubarb, apples, beans, and rapeseed cake (animal feed). Aniline has also been found as a volatile component of black tea. Aniline has been detected in drinking water and has also been found in surface water.
How do you identify aniline?
Aniline appears as a yellowish to brownish oily liquid with a musty fishy odor. Melting point -6°C; boiling point 184°C; flash point 158°F. Denser than water (8.5 lb / gal) and slightly soluble in water. Vapors heavier than air.
Why is aniline so reactive?
This is because NH2 group in aniline is highly activating group. A lone pair of electrons is present on N which releases the electron density to the benzene ring and hence activates the benzene ring towards electrophilic substitution reactions at ortho and para positions.
Why aniline is aromatic?
But aniline is still aromatic, because there are only 6 π electrons resonating, i.e. the 6 π electrons in the benzene ring are conjugated in a plane perpendicular to the ring. While the additional lone pair of electron on the nitrogen atom cannot resonate with them, as it is not in that plane perpendicular to the ring.
How aniline is formed?
Aniline is prepared commercially by the catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene or by the action of ammonia on chlorobenzene. The reduction of nitrobenzene can also be carried out with iron borings in aqueous acid. A primary aromatic amine, aniline is a weak base and forms salts with mineral acids.
Where is aniline used?
Aniline is used in rubber accelerators and anti-oxidants, dyes and intermediates, photographic chemicals, as isocyanates for urethane foams, in pharmaceuticals, explosives, petroleum refining; and in production of diphenylamine, phenolics, herbicides and fungicides.
Is aniline acidic or basic?
A primary aromatic amine, aniline is a weak base and forms salts with mineral acids. In acidic solution, nitrous acid converts aniline into a diazonium salt that is an intermediate in the preparation of a great number of dyes and other organic compounds of commercial interest.
Why is aniline a weak base?
Aniline only reluctantly accepts a proton to form the anilinium ion, and hence is a weak base. When an -NH group is attached to an aliphatic radical it receives no comparable delocalization stabilization. It is less reluctant to accept a proton on its nitrogen lone pair, and hence aliphatic amines are stronger bases.