How many filoviruses are there?
Six out of the 12 filoviruses are known to cause disease in humans. Further studies are, however, needed to determine the pathogenicity of the newly discovered member of the Ebolavirus genus, BOMV, and the only member of the Dianlovirus genus, MLAV.
How are filoviruses transmitted?
Once a person is infected, filoviruses can spread from person-to-person through direct contact with an infected person’s body fluids. Those at highest risk of infection are caretakers and healthcare providers who do not use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
Is Marburg an emerging virus?
Marburg virus is considered to be a re-emerging pathogen that poses a significant threat to human health. This naturally occurring virus can cause a fulminating hemorrhagic disease with a severe shock syndrome and high mortality in both humans and nonhuman primates – also known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever.
How can the morphology of Filoviruses be described?
Structure. Filoviruses are filamentous, enveloped particles with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, approximately 19 kb long. Genes are defined by conserved transcriptional start and termination signals and arranged linearly. A single glycoprotein forms the spikes on the virion surface.
Is Ebola a filovirus?
Ebola – and marburgviruses are members of the Filoviridae family. Ebola- and marburgviruses cause a severe disease in humans. The filamentous viral particles of ebola- and marburgviruses contain a helical nucleocapsid that is enveloped by a host cell-derived membrane.
Are filoviruses airborne?
Based on the existing literature, filoviruses have very little to no capacity to be airborne (i.e., inhalation of infectious particles at a distance from the source). The virus does not transmit from an infected person to a susceptible person that is located at a distance [25,70].
How do filoviruses work?
Filovirus transcription and replication are mediated by a single virus-encoded polymerase in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. The negative-sense RNA genome is transcribed into monocystronic, polyadenylated subgenomic RNA species which are translated into seven structural proteins.
What is a reemerging disease?
Reemerging diseases are diseases that reappear after they have been on a significant decline. Reemergence may happen because of a breakdown in public health measures for diseases that were once under control. They can also happen when new strains of known disease-causing organisms appear.
Is SARS emerging or reemerging?
But despite considerable progress, infectious diseases continue to present significant challenges as new microbial threats emerge and reemerge. HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, Marburg virus, and bioterrorism are examples of some of the emerging and reemerging threats.
What is the difference between Marburg and Ebola?
Marburg and Ebola viruses are filamentous filoviruses that are distinct from each other but that cause clinically similar diseases characterized by hemorrhagic fevers and capillary leakage. Ebola virus infection is slightly more virulent than Marburg virus infection.
What type of virus is Marburg?
Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a rare but severe hemorrhagic fever which affects both people and non-human primates. MVD is caused by the Marburg virus, a genetically unique zoonotic (or, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family.