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How does TFM work?

How does TFM work?

TFM acts physiologically to disrupt energy metabolism in larvae. Compared to other fish, sea lampreys have low levels of the enzymes used to eliminate TFM from their bodies, which eventually leads to their death. Most other organisms are unaffected by TFM at the concentrations applied.

What does the lampricide TFM stand for?

lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol
1. Introduction. The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes, where it is applied to nursery streams containing larval sea lampreys (Smith and Tibbles, 1980, Bills et al., 2003, Boogaard et al., 2003, McDonald and Kolar, 2007).

What is the name of the most commonly used lampricide?

The most widely used lampricide is TFM, which selectively targets larval sea lamprey in infested tributaries because they have a limited capacity to detoxify TFM compared to most non-target fishes (Lech and Statham, 1975, Kane et al., 1994, Bussy et al., 2018a, Bussy et al., 2018b).

What does TFM stand for in sea lamprey?

Through this research, scientists, in 1958, discovered that TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) was remarkably effective in controlling sea lampreys without signifi- cantly impacting other species.

How effective is Lampricide?

Over 200 Great Lakes tributaries are regularly treated with lampricides, chemical compounds that effectively kill sea lamprey larvae without significant harm to surrounding plants or animals.

What is Lampricide made of?

Lampricides include 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and niclosamide, the 2-aminoethanol salt of 2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide, which may be used as an additive to TFM during stream treatments, or alone in a granular, bottom-release formulation to target sea lamprey larvae in deepwater environments where …

What is lampricide made of?

Is lampricide harmful to other aquatic life?

Lampricides are applied to Great Lakes tributaries to remove larval sea lampreys. By carefully measuring the amount of lamprcides applied, stream treatments are lethal to sea lamprey larvae but generally safe to other fish and organisms. A small number of more sensitive fish may be killed during treatment.

How effective is lampricide?

What is TFM pesticide?

Abstract. The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), has been extensively used over the last 50 years to control invasive sea lamprey (P. marinus) populations in the Great Lakes, but its mechanism of toxicity is unresolved.

Is Lampricide harmful to other aquatic life?

Is Lampricide harmful to humans?

Recreational use – There are no EPA or Health Canada restrictions for recreational use of waters containing lampricides. Studies have shown that no adverse effects result from contact with lampricides at greater than 15,000 times typical treatment concentrations.

What happens during A lampricide treatment?

During a lampricide treatment, water parameters are monitored and, when necessary, adjustments are made to the concentration of the lampricide to ensure maximum effectiveness, efficiency, and environmental safety.

Why do I need to register my lampricide?

Registration requires scientific studies to show that lampricides can be used with minimal risk to people or the environment.

Are lampricides safe for human health?

Both agencies have extensively reviewed human health and environmental safety data for lampricides and have concluded that the concentrations of TFM and Bayluscide used to control sea lampreys pose no unreasonable risk to the general population or the environment.

How is Bayluscide used to control sea lamprey?

The money saved is used for additional sea lamprey control. A granular form of Bayluscide is typically applied to slow-moving or stationary waters where it sinks to the bottom before releasing its payload. This enables control of sea lamprey larvae in areas where TFM cannot be used.