How does HIV replicate its DNA?
When HIV infects a cell, it first attaches to and fuses with the host cell. Then the virus uses the host cell’s machinery to convert the viral RNA into DNA and replicate itself. The new copies of HIV then leave the host cell and move on to infect other cells.
What are the steps in viral replication of HIV?
The series of steps that HIV follows to multiply in the body. The process begins when HIV encounters a CD4 cell. The seven steps in the HIV life cycle are: 1) binding; 2) fusion; 3) reverse transcription; 4) integration; 5) replication; 6) assembly; and 7) budding.
What are the steps in the virus replication process?
Despite this, there are generally six broad steps required for viral replication to occur successfully. These include attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and virion release. The first stage, attachment, involves viral proteins binding to the host cell surface.
What are the 5 steps the virus goes through to replicate itself?
Most productive viral infections follow similar steps in the virus replication cycle: attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release.
How do retroviruses convert their RNA to DNA?
Retroviruses use reverse transcriptase to transform their single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. DNA molecules store the genetic information of human cells and cells from other life forms. Once transformed from RNA to DNA, the viral DNA is integrated into the genome of the infected cells.
What do you mean by DNA replication?
DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. Replication is an essential process because, whenever a cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information, or DNA, as the parent cell.
What is replication cycle?
Listen to pronunciation. (reh-plih-KAY-shun…) In biology, refers to the reproduction cycle of viruses. A repliction cycle begins with the infection of a host cell and ends with the release of mature progeny virus particles.
What is the first step in DNA replication?
The initiation of DNA replication occurs in two steps. First, a so-called initiator protein unwinds a short stretch of the DNA double helix. Then, a protein known as helicase attaches to and breaks apart the hydrogen bonds between the bases on the DNA strands, thereby pulling apart the two strands.
When does DNA replication occur?
DNA replication occurs during the S-stage of interphase. DNA replication (DNA amplification) can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to start DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule.
What is retroviral replication?
Replication of retroviruses. After a retrovirus enters a host cell, reverse transcriptase converts the retroviral RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. This viral DNA then migrates to the nucleus and becomes integrated into the host genome. Viral genes are transcribed and translated.
How is RNA converted to DNA?
Reverse transcriptase (RT), also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into DNA. This enzyme is able to synthesize a double helix DNA once the RNA has been reverse transcribed in a first step into a single-strand DNA.
What are the 4 steps of DNA replication?
Step 1: Replication Fork Formation. Before DNA can be replicated, the double stranded molecule must be “unzipped” into two single strands.